The first sign along the road to Mubarak was the 1967 war between Egypt and Israel.  Although Gamal and Hosni Mubarak denied an inheritance of power, Gamal could be elected; with Hosni Mubarak's presidential term set to expire in 2010, speculation existed that Gamal would run as the NDP candidate in 2011.  That day, an employee of the Azerbaijani embassy in Cairo was killed on their way home from work; the following day, Azerbaijan sent a plane to evacuate citizens and opened a criminal investigation into the killing. Mansour had the right to issue constitutional declarations and vested executive power in the Supreme Constitutional Court, giving him executive, judicial and constitutional power.  The vast majority of Egyptians live near the banks of the Nile, in an area of about 40,000 square kilometers (15,000 sq mi) where the only arable land is found. , Journalism scholar Heather Ford studied the use of infoboxes and cleanup templates in the Wikipedia article regarding the revolution. Read More .  A labour strike took place on 8 February, and large protests were held on 11 February. Protesters chanting anti-Mubarak slogans clash with police, who used water cannons and tear gas against the crowds. Seven female protesters were forcibly subjected to virginity tests. Investigation of officials responsible for violence against protesters, 12.  In March 2012 it had 325,000 predominantly young and members, most previously inactive politically, whose concerns included free speech, nepotism in government and the country's stagnant economy. At least 25 people were killed, and more than 200 wounded. It marks the start of the revolution in 2011 that led to the resignation of General Mubarak. However, in reality they did the opposite, including amending the constitution to make sure that Gamal will be the only unchallenged candidate.  The cooperation of the Egyptian regime in enforcing the blockade of the Gaza Strip was deeply unpopular with the Egyptian public.. The Egyptian parliament was dissolved, and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces resumed legislative authority. Wael Ghonim's memorial Facebook page to Said grew to over 400,000 followers, creating an online arena where protestors and those discontented with the government could gather and organise. The public prosecutor froze the bank accounts of Adli and his family following accusations that over 4 million Egyptian pounds ($680,000) were transferred to his personal account by a businessman. National Police Day in Egypt Date in the current year: January 25, 2020 National Police Day is a professional holiday in Egypt observed annually on January 25.  Emergency law extended police powers, suspended constitutional rights, legalised censorship and abolished habeas corpus. Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali from power, protests against the Mubarak regime erupted on January 25, 2011. ", "Egyptian Activists' Action Plan: Translated", International Journal of Baudrillard Studies, "The Arab Spring| Social Media in the Egyptian Revolution: Reconsidering Resource Mobilization Theory", "Revolution Graffiti: Street Art of the new Egypt", "For Egypt's Graffiti Artists Revolution Brings Inspiration and Uncertainty", "The Social Impulse: Politics, Meida and Art After the Arab Uprisings", "Core to Commonplace: The Evolution of Egypt's Blogosphere", "The Myth of Coup-proofing Risk and Instances of Military Coups d’état in the Middle East and North Africa, 1950–2013", Middle East and North Africa in turmoil – Tracking the Protests, Egypt Elections: Key Events Timeline In Egyptian Uprising And Transition, Vox Populi: ongoing project by Lara Baladi which includes a series of media initiatives, art projects, publications and a portal into web based archives, Emergency Law and Police Brutality in Egypt, "University on the Square: Documenting Egypt's 21st Century Revolution", "Egypt's 21st Century Revolution Oral Histories", Egypt: A Nation in Waiting (Al Jazeera documentary focusing on past trends in Egypt's political history and the events which led to the revolution. It marks the start of the revolution in 2011 that led to the resignation of General Mubarak. He died 16 December 2011, after he was shot in front of the cabinet building. Small-but-violent clashes began that night between pro- and anti-Mubarak groups. , 6 March: From the Nasr City headquarters, protesters acquired evidence of mass surveillance and vote-rigging, noting rooms full of videotapes, piles of shredded and burned documents and cells in which activists recounted their experiences of detention and torture.  Some participated in the protests, were present in news clips and on Facebook forums and were part of the revolution's leadership during the Egyptian revolution. She shows how political cartoons were removed, and how the number of casualties became a source of heated debate. He was succeeded by Hosni Mubarak after Sadat's 1981 death. Radicals have a small threshold and are more likely to form new networks during an information blackout, influencing the people. Zuheir Garana and steel tycoon Ahmed Ezz. 10 February 2011: Mubarak addressed the Egyptian people amid speculation of a military coup.  At Effat's funeral the following day, hundreds of mourners chanted "Down with military rule". 6 February 2011: An interfaith service was held with Egyptian Christians and Muslims in Tahrir Square.  According to the interim constitution, a permanent constitution must be written within three months and be subject to a referendum 15 days later. ", "Trade unions: the revolutionary social network at play in Egypt and Tunisia", "Protests in Egypt and unrest in Middle East – as it happened", "Unease in Egypt as police replaced by army, neighbors band against looters", "The Army's OK with the Protesters, for now", "Mubarak plays last card, the army; Police vanish", "Egypt: From Police State to Military Rule", "Egypt's military dismantles Mubarak regime", "Muslim Brotherhood's Mohamed Morsi declared president of Egypt", "President Morsi in Egypt Seizes New Powers", "Morsi ousted, under house arrest, as crowds celebrate in Cairo", "The Simplest Explanation of Egypt's Revolution You'll Ever Read", "Sisi elected Egypt president by landslide", "Egypt: The Bread and Freedom Revolution |A Global Revolution", "The 25 January Revolution (Special issue)", "Egyptian-American leaders call for U.S. support of 'Lotus Revolution, "Business News » Investors See White Revolution in Egypt", "Egyptians abroad speak out against inheritance of power", "How Gamal brought down the whole Mubarak house", "Egypt unrest: Anti-Mubarak protesters fight back", "Egypt and The Impact of 27 years of Emergency on Human Rights", "Egypt After 9/11: Perceptions of the United States", "Egyptian bloggers brave police intimidation", "Egyptian Elections: Independents Fight for Hearts and Minds in 'Fixed Ballot, "Egypt: Keep Promise to Free Detainees by End of June: Joint Statement", "Egyptian Lawyer's Death Triggers Cairo Protests", "US reported 'routine' police brutality in Egypt, WikiLeaks cables show", "US embassy cables: Police brutality in Egypt", "Arab countries' secret police forces have a reputation for torture and arbitrary arrests", "Anger in Alexandria: 'We're Afraid of Our Own Government, "Two Witnesses Affirm Alexandria Victim Beaten by Police", "How Cairo, U.S.  The rise to power of powerful businessmen in the NDP, the government and the House of Representatives led to public anger during the Ahmed Nazif government. Non-governmental organizations expressed concern about the protests and the heavy-handed state response, with Amnesty International describing attempts to discourage the protests as "unacceptable". , As of 30 January, Al Jazeera reported as many as 150 deaths in the protests.  Journalists were harassed by supporters of the regime, eliciting condemnation from the Committee to Protect Journalists, European countries and the United States. Meanwhile, the Mubarak regime was unable to communicate a possible threat to the protestors via social media and was therefore unable to dissuade the crowds through this mean, which spread the protests further. January 25 revolution - 4/7 ... a day intended to commemorate those killed in pro-democracy protests since Jan. 25. " The United States, the United Kingdom, France and Germany issued similar statements calling for reform and an end to violence against peaceful protesters. He was in the 30th year of his reign when the Revolution of 2011 began. 27 January 2011: The government shuts down four major ISPs at approximately 5:20 p.m. " Internet censorship has also been extensive, in some cases to the extent of taking entire nations virtually offline.. 13 February 2011: The Supreme Council dissolved Egypt's parliament and suspended the constitution in response to demands by demonstrators. 25 January Revolution - A total of 1,280 prisoners were released by a presidential decree on the occasion of the revolution commemoration and National Police Day Finally Get Fluent in Arabic with PERSONALIZED Lessons. 25 January Revolution Day commemorates the beginning of protests in 2011 that eventually led to the resignation of 30-year ruling Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak. , On 16 April the Higher Administrative Court dissolved the former ruling National Democratic Party (NDP), ordering its funds and property to be transferred to the government.  U.S. President Barack Obama praised the achievement of the Egyptian people and encouraged other activists, saying "Let's look at Egypt's example". Key Egyptian military personnel include defense minister Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and armed forces chief of staff Sami Hafez Enan.  However, after the January–February 2011 protest Gamal Mubarak said that he would not run for president in the 2011 elections. , 18 June: The SCAF said that it picked a 100-member panel to draft a permanent constitution if a court strikes down the parliament-picked assembly, planning a celebration at the end of June to mark the transfer of power to the new president. How the January 25 Egyptian Revolution Was Organized. Gamal Abdel Nasser's defeat brought Anwar Sadat to power after Nasser's death in 1970. Marks the day of the beginning of the 2011 Egyptian revolution. However, pictures of Khaled's disfigured corpse from the morgue showed signs of torture. Were Blindsided by Revolution", "Bloody and Bruised: The Journalist Caught in Egypt Unrest", "Subject: Struggling to Address Police Brutality", "Final Report: Assessment of the Electoral Framework in the Arab Republic of Egypt", "Central Agency for Population Mobilisation and Statistics — Population Clock (July 2008)", "The long-term economic challenges Egypt must overcome", "Egypt's Mubarak Likely to Retain Vast Wealth", "Obama optimistic about Egypt as negotiators make concessions", "How did Egypt become so corrupt? 28 January 2011: The "Friday of Anger" protests began, with hundreds of thousands demonstrating in Cairo and other Egyptian cities after Friday prayers. , The Egyptian Armed Forces initially enjoyed a better public reputation than the police did; the former was seen as a professional body protecting the country, and the latter was accused of systemic corruption and lawless violence. On 22 November 2012, Morsi issued a declaration immunizing his decrees from challenge and attempting to protect the work of the constituent assembly drafting the new constitution. A "huge protest" was planned for Tuesday, 27 November, with clashes reported between protesters and police.  One prominent Egyptian who was killed was Emad Effat, a senior cleric at the Dar al-Ifta al-Misriyyah school of Al-Azhar University. In numerous trials defendants alleged that police tortured them during questioning. Revolution Day January 25 - Egypt. Hundreds of mourners gathered, calling for Mubarak's removal. ", The deployment of Baltageya (Arabic: بلطجية)—plainclothes police—by the NDP has been a hallmark of the Mubarak government. Other key figures (Sami Hafez Anan chief among them) are younger, with closer connections to the U.S. and the Muslim Brotherhood. Citizens formed neighbourhood-watch groups to maintain order, and widespread looting was reported. One protest, on 1 February, had an estimated attendance of one million. January 25 revolution Adly testifies against MB for storming prisons during revolution.  Trials of the accused officials began on 5 March 2011, when former interior minister Habib el-Adli appeared at the Giza Criminal Court in Cairo. The Egyptian revolution of 2011, also known as the 25 January Revolution (Arabic: ثورة 25 يناير; Thawrat khamsa wa-ʿišrūn yanāyir), started on 25 January 2011 and spread across Egypt.  Authorities stated that Khaled died choking on hashish while being chased by police officers. ", "Egypt: Gene Sharp Taught Us How To Revolt! Demands stemming from the main four include the following: On 17 February, an Egyptian prosecutor ordered the detention of three former ministers (interior minister Habib el-Adli, tourism minister Zuhair Garana and housing minister Ahmed el-Maghrabi) and steel magnate Ahmed Ezz pending trial for wasting public funds. , 22 March: Portions of the Interior Ministry building caught fire during police demonstrations outside. Feburary 2, 2011: Battle of the Camel.  Morsi refused to accept his removal from office, and many supporters vowed to reinstate him. The public holiday is a paid vacation for all civil servants in ministries and governmental institutions as well as the companies affiliated to the public, business and private sectors. John Cena, Batista & Rey Mysterio vs. Randy Orton & Jeri-Show: Tribute to the Troops, Dec. 20, 2008 - Duration: 11:54. Read More. Egypt's revolution began on 25 January, the "Day of Revolt", when tens of thousands of marchers occupied Cairo's Tahrir Square to protest against President Hosni Mubarak and …  In a TV interview with SCAF members after the revolution, Abdul Rahman Mansour (an underground activist and media expert) was disclosed as sharing the account with Ghonim. 1 February 2011: Mubarak made another televised address, offering several concessions. Many states in the region expressed concern and supported Mubarak; Saudi Arabia issued a statement "strongly condemn[ing]" the protests, while Tunisia and Iran supported them. U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said that William Burns (undersecretary of state for political affairs) and David Lipton (a senior White House adviser on international economics) would travel to Egypt the following week. Facebook, Twitter and blogging helped spread the uprising. A chronicle of the revolution that ended the three-decade-long presidency of Hosni Mubarak. Although many would say that such a change has yet to materialize in the everyday of ordinary citizens, those 18 days are still a cherished, albeit painful, memory for those who participated, or even for those who followed events from afar. 25 January Revolution Day 2021, 2022 and 2023 in Egypt 25 January Revolution Day commemorates the beginning of protests in 2011 that eventually led to the resignation of 30-year ruling Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak.  Until 2005, Mubarak was the only presidential candidate (with a yes-or-no vote). , 15 June: Security forces were stationed around Parliament to bar anyone, including lawmakers, from entering the chambers without official authorisation. Egypt's economy was highly centralised during the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, becoming more market-driven under Anwar Sadat and Mubarak. An important aspect of the relationship between the Egyptian and American military establishments is the $1.3 billion in annual military aid provided to Egypt, which pays for American-made military equipment and allows Egyptian officers to train in the U.S. Guaranteed this aid package, the ruling SCAF is resistant to reform. Marks the day when Jamahiriya security forces first used live ammunition against Benghazi demonstrators, sparking the civil war. The Egyptian and Tunisian revolutions sparked a wave of uprisings, with demonstrations spreading across the Middle East and North Africa. The former president, his two sons and a business tycoon were acquitted of corruption charges because the statute of limitations had expired. "Infoboxes and cleanup tags: Artifacts of Wikipedia newsmaking". ", During the 2010 elections, opposition groups complained about government harassment and fraud. The date marking the historic turning point coincides with Police Day, which was chosen to protest police brutality. David Wolman May 4, 2011.  His government received support from the West and aid from the United States by its suppression of Islamic militants and peace with Israel. It will have to limit its political role to continue good relations with the West, and cannot restrict Islamist participation in a genuine democracy. After the 1952 Revolution, January 25 has been celebrated as Police Day and has become an official holiday.  The ability of protesters to focus their demonstrations on a single area (with live coverage) was fundamental in Egypt but impossible in Libya, Bahrain and Syria, irrespective of social-media use. , The 25 January Revolution and the fall of Hosni Mubarak the following month ushered in a new artistic era reflecting a changed social and political environment; "the revolution triggered a new public culture". ", "Social media, cellphone video fuel Arab protests", "The Realist Prism: Politics vs. Social Media in the Arab Uprising", "Mubarak Shut Down The Internet, And The Internet Paid Him in Kind", "The Power of Social Media in Developing Nations: New Tools for Closing the Global Digital Divide and Beyond", "Sharif Abdel Kouddous Transitions from Democracy Now! Police were withdrawn from the streets, and the military was deployed. Revolution Day January 25 is a national holiday in Egypt that is observed on January 25th. 15 July: Tahrir Square protests continued.  Mubarak repeated his refusal to resign in interviews with several news agencies. "January 25 was a curse", says one Egyptian activist who wants to remain anonymous, as most of them inevitably do these days. However, when the SCAF cracked down on protesters after becoming the de facto ruler of Egypt the military's popularity decreased. Sadat undid Nasser's social reforms and dependence on the Soviet Union, predicting its collapse nearly two decades before it occurred. Announcing demands on government television and radio, 15. This is an empowering factor for women, who have become more present and active publicly. The only opposition presidential candidate in recent Egyptian history, Ayman Nour, was imprisoned before the 2005 elections. With his father's health declining and no appointed vice-president, Gamal was considered Egypt's de facto president by some. , 24 January: Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi said that the decades-old state of emergency would be partially lifted the following day. Mubarak's National Democratic Party (NDS) maintained one-party rule.  Sisi sworn into office as President of Egypt on 8 June 2014. The government cracked down on the media, halting internet access (a primary means of opposition communication) with the help of London-based Vodafone. The day after her last video post, hundreds of thousands of Egyptians poured into the streets in protest. On 1 February Mubarak said that although his candidacy had been announced by high-ranking members of his National Democratic Party, he never intended to run for reelection in September. The day celebrates the beginning of the Egyptian revolution of 2011. Her research exemplifies how editors coordinated and prioritized work on the article, but also how political events are represented through collaborative journalism.. The day was selected by youth movements to be in conjunction with the National Police Holiday; to showcase their stand against the constant burgeoning police brutality during the 30 years of Mubarak’s regimen. In 2014 in Upper Egypt, several newspapers reported that Upper Egypt wanted to secede from the rest of the country to improve its standard of living.  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