The most populous African … Figure 1 shows the difference between the decline in fertility from 1990–1995 to 2010–2015 projected by the United Nations Population Division in 1995 (shown in orange) and the actual decline in fertility as revealed by on-the-ground Demographic and Health Surveys two decades later (shown in grey).12 As can readily be seen, the UN fertility projections, based on analyzing the pattern of fertility decline in other developing regions, anticipated fertility reductions of .5 to 1 child per woman more than was actually observed. Population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a … Some economists have worried that if robots and automation take over work in the developing world, there will not be the kind of low-wage manufacturing work for exports available for Africans that helped Asia move forward.37 Yet there are plenty of needs within Africa for African workers to address if the transport networks for intra-African trade were developed. In the coming decades, the number of travelers from sub-Saharan Africa to other continents, driven by increased population and higher incomes in Africa, is likely to increase by three or four times. In the coming decades, Africa will have by far the fastest growing population anywhere in the world and will soon be the only fast-growing source of one of the most precious resources on the planet—young people. Indeed, the countries of East Asia benefitted from a “demographic dividend” during their period of rapid population growth.35 But this only occurred after three conditions were met: (1) Fertility continued to decline so that the dependency ratio—the number of children to be supported by working adults—fell. These are the only large regions of the world where, even after decades of falling mortality, fertility remains at or above five children per woman.4. Demographer Joel Cohen has forcefully made the case for the effects of secondary education in high fertility societies. Nonetheless, Iran’s population increased from 38.7 million in 1980, when its rapid demographic transition began, to 80 million in 2010, when the transition was completed; such is the power of demographic momentum to keep population growing even when fertility is declining. World Population Day, which took place on the 11th July, focused on enabling the youth with the necessary skills to reach their potential and economic growth. Africa has plenty of scope to increase its agricultural productivity and release workers for manufacturing and service jobs. For comparison, India has 450 people per square kilometer, Haiti has 400, and Bangladesh has 1,278. But by the 1980s, this had increased by almost a third, to 2.8% per year. Non-significant effects are shown as dotted arrows. Rapid progress in reducing fertility could only have a major impact in the second half of this century. to lower the rate of population growth has increased steadily in Africa since the mid-1970s, from 25 per cent in 1976 to 60 per cent in 1996 and 72 per cent in 2013 (table II.1). This would kick off a virtuous circle in which, as fertility fell, more money could be invested per student and worker, raising productivity further and leading to sustained and rapid economic growth. Next to climate change, the largest impact that Africa is likely to have on the international system is through a growing contribution to international migration. well-being of the entire population and of all indi- ... identified as having an important effect on eco-nomic growth. Many potential African migrants to the United States and Europe are Christians who speak French or English, mitigating anxieties about how they would “fit” into American or European society. While most will simply move to larger cities in their own country or to other countries in Africa or the Middle East, most who are surveyed say that their first choice of destinations is Europe or the United States But even if the number of migrants from sub-Saharan Africa to the United States and Europe were to double, or even triple, in the next three decades, the annual numbers would be less than 600,000 per year to Europe (out of a projected population of Western Europe in 2050 of 457 million, or 0.13 percent), and less than half that to the United States (or about 0.08 percent). To modernization indices of falling mortality and relatively stable and high fertility regime produce. 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